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June 15, 2020


prolonged space-travel is an issue which has many implications.. the implications multiply a hundredfold in the presence of humans.. due to the presence of people on a space flight, the issues to be dealt with in providing a safe, hospitable work atmosphere are complex and dynamic.. simulations of a flight where people are sequestered in a small habitat for many months provide much insight, but much more insight is required for a group of people to travel many millions of miles thru space, without a change of scenery or change of pace.. while describing many sides of humans in space flight, the purpose here is to promote hibernation of the crew during the flight..
as in "2001", a crew would be placed into hibernation before the mission is launched.. only 2 or 3 persons would be needed to carry the mission to its destination.. when the mission arrives close to its destination, members of the "hibernated" team would be revived, brought up-to-date on the mission's progress and take time to orient themselves as to their surface objectives, procedures, tool usage and other areas necessary to be understood before a landing is attempted..such an accommodation would save untold resources in every aspect of the mission.. less food and water, less oxygen, less room consumed by each explorer, for routine movements and privacy.. the most important factor to be considered in close habitation of a number of people is, their "closeness".. experiments of simulated space flight for months among specially selected candidates shows that, while the team displayed the greatest consideration for each other's professionalism and abilities, the simplest of habits and "idiosyncrasies" became a significant aspect in the crew's ability to offer continued cooperation and good will in a prolonged, confined environment.. "playing" with hands, whistling, arranging one's hair, "clicking" a ball-point pen. personal hygiene and soiled uniforms were typical issues.. also, simply not asking "please" or issuing a "thank you", clearing one's throat, choice of language, slowness of replying to a query were also described.. these and other issues would not be significant on earth, but, in space, these are large issues among a confined team which must not only behave civilly, but rely on each other's judgement, in all matters, great and small.. on earth, we can walk away or simply turn our heads; in space. this is not an option.. in a space vehicle, there is no "going out for fresh air".. there is no "taking a walk" to get "it" out of your system.. on earth, withdrawing from a volatile confrontation has always been an advisable response.. we practice it and teach it to our children.. not in space.. if you can turn your head, you're lucky.. each team member would have a "berth', where they would sleep and spend time when not needed to perform mission functions.. this is the only time when a team member could truly be "alone", except for a shower or personal hygiene.. although "sharing" periods where members could express their feelings towards others' actions might help, such exchanges might lead to worsening mutual attitudes of feeling unappreciated or resented, if not making outright threats or forcing physical conflict.. this is the outcome of a group specially chosen for their previously known demeanor and ability to handle stressful situations..due to the prolonged time and distance in space, many "considerations" would be a part of the space crew's understanding of the management of situations that could include volatile or hostile behavior.. there would be an agreement that a "code" as written by behavioral experts to cover many situations, predictable and unpredictable, would be a preferred guide.. the "code" would be used to resolve issues on many levels.. the crew could select one of their own to act as a "judge" and to render verdicts on the behavior of other members, in concert with the crew or a "majority rules" dictum..
while crews would be chosen for their ability to work and relate with others on the team, there is the possibility that one or more team members could employ threats or become physically violent.. while the crew itself would be responsible for determining and rendering decisions within its membership, it is important that each case be reported to mission control, for commerisation and advice on handling of such incidents.. while there could be no enforcement of laws or penalties as on earth, there must be a means of rendering the circumstances and outcome of procedures as imposed by the self-regulation of the crew..the isolation integral to space flight can have serious effects on crew members.. in extreme cases during simulation, team members can acquire symptoms commonly referred to as "cabin fever".. a member's behavior may become erratic and irrational.. a palliative could be issued in the form of sedatives and confinement to a limited area of the spacecraft.. communication with other members would be restricted.. there would be no discussion with the member of what other members are saying about the isolated member; exchanges with the offender would come from a meeting of all members and issued by the team's "judge", documenting the coordination and concurrence among other members .. hopefully, the "cabin fever" would be resolved with medications and reasoning with other members of the team, but not as to what others said about the isolated subject.. "telling tales out of school" would be strictly prohibited.. human activity includes the vile as well as venerated behavior.. it is predictable that a member might attempt suicide of oneself or a "murder-suicide" combination.. it is vital that observation and reporting of aberrant behavior be documented and logged.. while no space mission would likely include deadly weapons, they can be fashioned from common tools, as inmates do in prisons everywhere.. materials must be accounted for and their missing status be reported and searches begun for their location and the person responsible held accountable..
for these reasons and others yet unknown, it is strongly suggested that "hibernation" of crew members whose usefulness would not be employed until arrival at the destination be inaugurated as a part of a prolonged mission's protocol.. the savings in weight, planning, space and introduction of basic human behaviors, good and bad, would be removed from the equation.. if something isnt part of the cargo, it cant be blamed for the problem.. removal of team members whose presence is not essential to the transit phase of the flight until arrival at the destination eliminates the potential for issues of "human relations" complicating what is already an incredibly complex undertaking.. with a team of people in a space flight, there is no "do over" or "second chance".. it has to be done right the first and only opportunity to do it at all.. crew hibernation is the way to conserve energy, conserve resources and conserve the skill sets of everyone on board, not to speak of how the team relates to each other.. while there may be such issues when exploring on the planet surface, team members will be required to focus on their individual tasks instead of taking exception to what others are doing.. sending an "awakened crew" on an extended mission will likely end tragically.. people are not designed to spend long periods in close quarters.. there should be data from the iss mission to support this.. people in such confinement begin to notice the smallest habits of others and often take exception to these habits, even when they are not interfering or harming anyone.. no amount of "crew-matching" or compatibility testing can avoid behaviors like this.. it is human nature to take note of how others behave.. when people are confined for long periods, they inevitably become critical of others' habits, for no reason.. speech patterns, smells, hairstyles, laughter, clearing one's throat all are targets for focus for someone whose nature is becoming strained at having to endure such behaviors day-after-day.. by the time the vehicle approaches the mission target, crew members could be at the breaking point for anti-social behavior: violent arguments, physical assault, claims that one or more crew members are attempting to sabotage the mission or even kill the entire crew.. while such behavior is absolutely wrong, the outcome is predictable, given the confinement for long periods, and being at each others' elbows for hours on end.. while horrific, it is typical for people to react to confinement and the attitudes shown to the rest of the crew when people are seeing too much of each other for days on end.. imagine the reaction of the people at mission control on earth when they hear crew members report such behavior and there is nothing they can do about it.. they can speak to the crew and offer advice, but there is no means to enforce a decision or penalty for bad behavior.. bottom line, dispatching a crew on an extended mission while awake amounts to a suicide mission.. a crew which is awake when arriving at the mission target is unlikely to be rational; some could be seriously injured or even dead from violence perpetrated against one another.. before or after arrival, there could be serious damage to equipment vital to the mission.. crew members could arrive detached from reality due to long-term confinement within the mission vehicle.. the survivors who are alive when the landing takes place will probably be insane or even homicidal.. this is not the fault of the crew or those who selected the crew for the mission.. this is the result of humans reaching their emotional and psychological limits when they are confined to a small space in the unending company of others, where each has identified aspects of another person's behavior which have become intolerable and unacceptable, which would require corrective action on the part of the offended party, including reprimand, assault, asking that the party be restricted to their berth and even death..


posted by a. remoat at 11:15 PM EDT | Discussion (0)

April 22, 2020

Opportunity Torque Output

Hi folks,

I'm doing a project on Mars Rovers, and I can't seem to find the specs for how much torque the opportunity/spirit rovers could output and I was wondering if anyone here could point my in the right direction?


posted by thomo at 8:47 AM EDT | Discussion (1)

March 28, 2020

Mars Summary

After all the probes let's talk about what we have learned.

Mars rotates every 24 hours or so like Earth, but it rotates at half the speed as Dana observed.

This allows for ground temperatures to reach above freezing into the Arctic boundaries.

The atmosphere maintains a pressure of 6.5 millabars. This is above the triple point of water.

Water snow falls above 50 degrees latitude at night, when conditions allow.

Seasonal methane plumes suggest micro biology or geologic activity. It must be argued that geology is not seasonal.

Add your findings below.

posted by Darwin at 4:22 PM EDT | Discussion (29)

February 23, 2020

Deep craters

I read that there are deep craters on Mars. I forgot what the depth of one of these craters is, but it is much deeper than any crater the rover has passed. It is speculated that the extreme depth of this crater make it possible for the air pressure to be more than on the surface. Again, speculation that the atmosphere could be closer to the atmosphere on earth. There is so much misinformation about Mars, that my first question is, are there really deep craters on Mars. This is one of few websites that is not a conspiracy website. It is actually science driven site, so I would appreciate if anyone can answer this question. Also, if it is possible that a crater can be extremely deep, is there a possibility that the speculation that the atmosphere would be different than the surface? If all of these are possibilities, is it possible to measure the atmospheric pressure on a future rover mission? Since the rover will not be able to travel to the extreme depth because of the terrain, is it possible for the rover to drop some type of instrument into the crater that would be able to measure and transmit data back to the rover and the rover can transmit data back to earth? If this entire scenario sounds ridiculous, please tell me it is. I won't be surprised. Thanks.

posted by Jim at 5:14 PM EDT | Discussion (26)

July 24, 2019

outdoor playground equipment

What the types of outdoor playground equipment
Nowadays, outdoor play equipment has gradually occupied a place in parks, playgrounds, plazas, etc., and has been widely welcomed by many children. It has even become a way for most children to have fun in their spare time or weekend time. So let's take a look at some of the fun outdoor play equipment.

posted by leiyuxin at 2:28 AM EDT | Discussion (1)

July 24, 2019

outdoor playground equipment

What the types of outdoor playground equipment
Nowadays, outdoor play equipment has gradually occupied a place in parks, playgrounds, plazas, etc., and has been widely welcomed by many children. It has even become a way for most children to have fun in their spare time or weekend time. So let's take a look at some of the fun outdoor play equipment.

posted by leiyuxin at 2:28 AM EDT | Discussion (0)

June 23, 2019

According to the PBS documentary NOVA -- Earth's Rocky Start:

* primordial comets & asteroids only possess a "starter kit" of ~250 mineral types

* Earth possesses ~5000 mineral types, of which 2/3rds (3300?) are oxides arising because of our unique oxygen-rich atmosphere, ~250 come from the primordial "starter kit", and the rest (1400?) formed because of the intense pressures within our world

IF so, then even the early pre-biotic earth contained an "extra" 1400 mineral varieties or so, formed from intense planetary pressures

NOW, the pressures within Mars are much much lower than within Earth (1/6th). SO, Mars may have only a small fraction (1/6th) as many "extra" mineral types?

IF SO, then Mars only has maybe 200-300 "extra" mineral types, over and above its "starter kit" of 250 primordial kinds, for a total of around 500 total types?

posted by Erik Nelson at 12:53 AM EDT | Discussion (0)

April 15, 2019

Hungarian Researchers Claim to See Biosignatures in Martian Meteorite


Dr. Gyollai and co-authors analyzed a thin section of ALH-77005 by optical and FTIR-ATR microscopy.

They were able to detect the presence of coccoidal and filamentous structures (probably built by iron-oxidizing microbes); organic material; biogenic minerals, like ferrihydrite, goethite, and hematite.

posted by noname at 1:04 AM EDT | Discussion (3)

March 15, 2019

Mars Soil For Science Fairs

Hello Fellow Space Explorers

This is my version of Martian regolith simulant JSC MARS-1A.

Martian regolith simulant (or Martian soil simulant) is a terrestrial material that is used to simulate the chemical and mechanical properties of Martian soil for research and experiments

After the Viking landers and the Mars Pathfinder’s rover landed on Mars, the onboard instruments were used to determine the properties of the Martian soil at the landing sites. The studies of the Martian soil properties led to the development of JSC Mars-1 Martian regolith simulant at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in 1998

Using NASA’s soil analysis I formulated my own Mars simulant for my son to use in a Mars science fair project.

The five most abundant ingredients in Mars soil account for almost 95% of the soil. The other 5% is made up of several tiny rare elements that are not easily attainable outside of NASA.

My Mars soils percentages are adjusted to compensate for the 5 % unattainable materials

SiO2 – 54.5%
Fe2O3 – 20.9%
Al2O3 – 8.2%
MgO – 8.7%
CaO – 7.7%

I mix my Mars soil in a clean lab and UV sterilize each batch before and after packing into one pound ziplock bags.

posted by Russell Clark at 8:03 AM EDT | Discussion (0)

January 28, 2019

Fare well

Looks like its over. Many people have been posting here for more than a decade. Some who were here from the beginning are no longer with us. As a scientist I found it doubtful that any part of us continues to exist in some form after we are gone, but if it does, is it not so for the rovers? And if that can be, perhaps there is some metaphysical corner of existence where they all live on together.

So long and thanks for all the fish.

posted by r lewis at 3:17 PM EDT | Discussion (11)

January 21, 2019

Rover Robot equipment

Hi guys, do any of you know anything about Rover Robot ChemCam and other instruments they use on Mars? I am doing a research as part of my studies and I have a short questionnaire I would be thankful if anyone could fill it out for me! Here is the link for it

posted by Kamile at 4:59 AM EDT | Discussion (0)

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